费孝通:在“易村”田野调查时汲水的那口井

日期:2020-11-27来源:本站原创作者:杨春华点击:23291 字号: 手机:

SAOMIAOWEIYUEDU

JINNIANWUYIJIEQIJIAN。2RI 。XIAWU。FENGNUANNIAOSHENGSUI,LIRIGUAZHANGKONG,RUTONGSHANGCIQUSHIYIYANG,WOHAISHIXUANZEJINWANDIDALIZHENZHUANGCUN,JIFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGDANGNIANKAIZHAN“TIANYEDIAOCHA”DE“YICUN”。MANGLIULEYITIANDEXIANGQINMENZHIYOUFANHOUCAIXIANDENANDEDEQINGSONGYUTIANMI。ZHEISHISHIDUONIANDEXIANGCUNSHENGHUOJIWOLIUXIADEZHIGUANGANSHOU。LIZHENZHUANGCUNYEBULINGWAI。

ZHEICIQUWOSHILIANXILELIZHENZHUANGCUNCUNMINXIAOZUZHANGMAANZHONG。DIANHUALI,TAHENREQINGDIYAOQINGWOQUTAJIAGANWANFAN,YIPIANXIANGCUNRENDEPOSHIDIDAOHAOKECONGDIANHUANEITOUCHUANGUOLAI。

MEIYICIDAOLIZHENZHUANGCUNHUODABEICHANGCUN,DOUYOUXINDESHOUHUO,ZHEIRANGWOHENXINGFEN。

XINGSHIZAIYOURUYITIAODUANDAIBANCHUANSUOZAICHONGSHANJUNLINGJIANDE320GUODAOSHANG,CONGCHUXIONGYILUXIANGDONG,YIFENGQINGYIFENGLV,YISHANYINGYISHANSONG,CHEZISIHUYEGEWAIKUAI。CHULE320GAOSU,WORAOJINLECAIYUNZHEN。ZAICAIYUNJIESHANGCHILEFAN,BIANWANGLIZHENZHUANGCUNYILUXIANGNAN。TAIYANGLUOSHANYUEYOUBANTIAOSHENGZIBANZHANG。DAODALIZHENZHUANGCUNKOU,JIUYUDAOYIGEBAOZHEYIBAOCAODESHOUERGAODEZHONGNIANRENCONGCUNXIDENEIZUODIAOQIAOFANGXIANGZOULAI。KANDECHULAI,TASIHUZHIDAOWOYINGGAIJIUSHIZAIDIANHUALIGENTALIANXIDECONGWEIMOUMIANDEYAOCAIFANGSOUJILIZHENZHUANGCUNGUANYUFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGDANGNIANDAOFANGJINXINGDIAOCHAYANJIUDESHIJIDEBIZHE。WOYEXIANG,TAJIUSHIWOLIANXIDELIZHENZHUANGCUNCUNMINXIAOZUZHANG。JIANLEMIAN,JIANDANHANXUANLEJIJU。

“TINGSHUO,NISHANGCILAI,KANLEFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGCENGJINGJUZHUGUODECUNHOUTUZHUMIAOHECUNQIANDEWENCHANGGONG,HAIKANLETAJUZHUGUODEFANGDONGJIA。XIANZAISHIHOUYEHAIYOUXIEZAO,TAIYANGHAIMEIYOULUOSHAN。”TASHUO,“CUNHOUHAIYOUYIYANJING,JIUSHIDANGNIANFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGZHUZAITUZHUMIAODENEIDUANSHIJIANJISHUIYONGDEYIYANGUJING。WOMENCUNLIDOUBATAHAOHAOBAOHUQILAILUO。DAINIQUKANKAN。”

“BUZHIDAOCUNHOUHAIYOUYIYANFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGDANGNIANJIGUOSHUIDEGUJINGA,SHANGCILAIMEIYOURENJIESHAODAO。”WOSHUO。

“TALAICUNLIDIAOCHAYANJIUZHUDESHIJIANZHANG,RENHENHAOCHU,HEAIKEQIN,JINGCHANGTINGZHANGBEIMENSHUOQIGUOTADEHENDUONANWANGDESHIQING,ZHISHIDANGSHIGENFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGZOUDEJINDELAORENDADUOYIJINGQUSHILE。HENDUOTADENEIXIEGANRENDESHIJICHUANXIALAIDEJIUBUDUO,XIANZAIXIANGXIANGJUEDEFEICHANGYIHAN、FEICHANGWANXI。”GANGCONGDILIHUILAIDEMAANZHONG,LIANKUJIAODOUHAIMEIYOULAIDEJIWANXIA,BIANYIBIANDAIZHEWOMENWANGCUNHOUZOU,YIBIANXIANGWOMENJIESHAODAO。

“XIAOSHIHOUBIJINGBUDONGSHI,BUHUIXIANGLAORENMENDATINGFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGZAICUNLIDENEIXIERIZILIDENEIXIEDIANDIANDIDIDEWANGSHI。ZHEIXIENIAN,WAIMIANYOUBUSHAORENYIBOJIEYIBODIJINLAI,HUOCAIFANG,HUODIAOYAN,BAOKUOHENDUODAXUEDELAOSHIHEXUESHENGDOULAI,BUSHILEJIEZHEIYANGJIUSHILEJIENEIYANG,DANWOMENCUNLINENGWANZHENGDIQUANMIANDIJIESHAODECHULAIDERENMEIYOUJIGELE。BIRU,DANGNIANGENFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGZHUFANDEZHANGZHENGMEIYEZAOJINIANJIUQUSHILE,TADANGNIANZHUDEFANGDONGJIAYEBUNENGQINGCHUDIJIANGDECHULAIFEIXIAOTONGDANGNIANZHUZAITAJIADENEIXIESHIQING。”MAANZHONGBIHUAZHEYIYIZHONGJIQIWANXIDEKOUWENXIANGWOMENJIANGDAO。“ZHUYAOSHINIANDAITAIJIULE。SHIJIANTAIJIULE,80DUONIANLEMA,NEIGESHIHOUWOMENHAIMEIYOUSHENG,JIULIANFUQINTAMENDOUHAIXIAO,SHENZHIBUZHIDAOLAICUNLIDIAOYANDEFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGDAODISHIGESHENMEREN,DAODISHILAIGAOSHENMEGONGZUO,GAOZHEIXIEGONGZUODAODISHIYAOGANSHENMEYONG,QISHIDAJIABINGMEIYOURENSHIDAO,DANGSHIBINGBUQINGCHUMINGBAI。BURAN,YINGGAIBAFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGDEGUSHIHAOHAODIJILUSHOUJIZHENGLIXIALAI。”

“TADUIWOMENCUNDERENSHIHENHAODE,HENYOUGANQING。TALAICUNLIDIAOYANDESHIHOUSHIERSHIQI、BASUI,ERSHINIANQIAN,HAOXIANGSHI1990NIAN,TAJIANGJINBASHISUIDESHIHOUYOULAILEYICI,DANMEIYOULAIDAOCUNLI,ZHILAIDAOSANJIANGKOU。YINWEIXIADAYUZHANGHONGSHUI,SANJIANGKOUNEILIDUCHUANBUGANDU,PAYOUWEIXIAN。JIUZHIDAOZHENSHANG,CUNLIDEJIGELAORENDAOSHIQUHETAJIANMIANJIAOTANLE,HAIZHAOLEXIANG,NEIXIEXIANGPIANWOMENYEJIANZHELE。”MAANZHONGSHUO,“TINGSHUO,NEICIFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGLAI,YIRANHENGUANXINWOMENCUNDEQUNZHONGSHENGHUOGAISHANDEZENMEYANG,HAIYOUSHENMEKUNNAN,YIZHIYIZHIZAIWEN,ZAILEJIE。YIGEGUOJIALINGDAONI,ZHEIYANGGUANXINWOMEN,GUANIANWOMEN,HENNANDE。”

SHUOZHE,SHUOZHE,JIULAIDAOCUNHOUDENEIYANGUJINGQIANLE。

ZAIYIPIANHONGTUPOJIAOXIADELUBIAN,YOUYIPENGHENDADEZHUZI,ZHUCONGPANGYOUYIKOUGAIDEYANYANSHISHIDEJING,CANGLAO,GUJIU,BENZHUO,JINGDEZHOUWEIDOUHENGANZAO,MANMUHUITU,MEIYOUYIDIANYOUSHUIDEJIXIANG,YOULIANGGENHEISEDESUGUANCONGJINGYANZHONGSHENCHULAI,SHENXIANGZUOLUOZAILUDONGBEIJIAODEJIHURENJIADEYUANQIANGLIQULE。

“JIUSHIZHEIKOUJINGLE,DANGNIANFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGZHUZAICUNHOUMIAOLIDESHIHOUCHIDESHUI、YONGDESHUIJIUSHICONGZHEILITIAOGUOQUDELE。CONGZHEILISHANGQU,YAOPAYIDAOPO,WANGXIBIANZHIZOU,DAYUE200DUOMIJIUSHITUZHUMIAOLE,BUSUANYUAN,DANSHIYITIANHAISHIYAOTIAOJIHUINI。LUBUHAOZOU,QISHIGENBENJIUMEIYOULU。DANGSHI,TAMENCONGZHEILITIAOSHUI,YEQUESHIBURONGYINI。”BUTAIXIHUANSHUOHUADEMAANZHONGZHIZHISHANSHANGDELU,YIJUYIJUDIJIESHAOZHE。

“ZHEIJINGLIHAIYOUSHUIME?”WOWEN。

“CHUSHUINI。YIQIANZHEILISHIYIKOULUOLUDEJING,CHUSHUIBUSHIHENDA,YINWEISHANSHANGZHIBEISHAO。CUNLIYONGSHITOUWEIQILAI,CUNLIHENDUORENJIADOUYAOLAIZHEILITIAOSHUICHI。”MAANZHONGHENGANKAIDISHUO,“ZHEIFUJINDERENJIALAIZHEILITIAOSHUIDAOSHISHENGSHI,ZHEILIDISHIBIJIAOPINGHUAN,LUHAOZOU,TIAOSHUIHAOTIAO,SHUIZHIYEHAO。CONGFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGHEZHANGZHIYIXIANSHENGTAMENZHUDENEIGEPOMIAO,DAOZHEILITIAOSHUIJIUBURONGYILE,YAOPAPO,YAOXIAPO,HAIMEIYOULU,HENNANZOU。DANTAMENSHIZHUZAIMIAOLI,YAOSHIBULAIZHEILITIAOSHUI,JIUYAODAOCUNZIXIAMIANQUTIAO,NEIJIUXIANGDANGYUANLE,YIBANDERENTIAOBUSHANGQUCHI。SUOYI,XIANZAIXIANGXIANG,TAMENNEIZHONGJINGSHEN,NEIZHONGCHIKUDEJINGSHEN,LIANWOMENTIANTIANGANLAODONGDERENDOUWUFAGENTAMENBI。”

“WOMENCUNLIDERENJUEDE,TAMENZHUZAIMIAOLI,CHISHUIKUNNAN,ZHUSUKUNNAN,ZHUFANKUNNAN,HAIBUANQUAN,NEISHIHOUHAIYOULANGNI。YUSHICUNLIDERENQUQINGTAMENZHUDAOJIALILAI,DANSHITAMENZHIYIBULAI。HOULAI,JIUZHUDAOCUNQIANDEWENCHANGGONGLI。NEILIYEBUFANGBIAN,TABIJINGBUSHIJIALIMA,GEFANGMIANDOUBUFANGBIAN。YOUQUQINGTAMEN,ZUOSHUOYOUSHUO,FANFUJICI,CAIQINGDAODANGSHITIAOJIANHAOYIDIANDEFANGDONGJIAZHUXIALAI。”MAANZHONGSHUO。

“TINGDEJIANSHUISHENGXIANG。”WOTIEJINJINGYANDEGAIBANZIXITINGLETINGSHUO。

“SHUISHICHUZHEDE,ZHEILIANGGENSUGUANJIUSHICHOUSHUIYONGDEGUANZI。”MAANZHONGZHIZHEGAOSUWO,“SHANGMIANNEIJIJIAYINYONGSHUIJIUSHICONGZHEIKOUJINGLICHOUSHANGQUDE,YINIANSIJIDOUCHUSHUI。”

“SHINANIANBAZHEIYANJINGGAIQILAIDE?”WOWEN。

“JUTIJIBUQINGLE。ZHEIKOUJINGSHIZAILUBIAN,YIXIAYU,SHANPOSHANGWANGWANGCHONGXIALAIBUSHAONISHA,CHONGJINJINGLI。YOUHAOJICI,YUXIADEDA,NISHACHONGXIALAIDEHENDUO,BAJINGDOUKUAIYAOYANMAIDIAOLE。HAIYOULUSHANG,LAILAIWANGWANGDESHENGKOUDOUCHIJINGLIDESHUI,FANERBUWEISHENG,BUGANJING。”MAANZHONGSHUO,“WOMENCUNLIHOULAIZHONGXINXIULEZHEIKOUJING,HAIYONGSHUINIBATAFENGGAIQILAILE,GAIZIKEYIDAKAI。WOMENDECUNZIZAISHANPODEGAOGAOCHU,HAISHIHENQUESHUI,YAOBAJINGBAOHUHAO,BASHUIBAOHUHAO。ZHUYAOYIGEMUDESHITACENGJINGSHIFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGTIAOSHUIZHUFANYONGGUODEYIKOUJING,YINGGAIBATAHAOHAOBAOCUNXIALAI,LIUZUOYIDAIYIDAIRENDEJINIAN。WOMENCUNLIDANGSHISHANGLIANGDESHIHOUJIUSHIZHEIMETONGYIQILAIDE。”

YIYANFEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGZAI“YICUN”KAIZHAN“TIANYEDIAOCHA”SHIDEJING,JINGJINGDIZAIZHEILI,TAJIANZHENGGUOLISHI,LIUXIALEGUSHI,ZHAOSHIZHEWEILAI。

YIKOUPUTONGDEJING,YESHIYIKOUHENBUPUTONGDEJING。

WOFUMOZHETA,YIBIANYOUYIBIAN……

 

 

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